By the end of this chapter, you should be able to:
attributes are, this section is going to be challenging. You can work through the first couple sections of Code Academy HTML + CSS to get a better understanding, or check out an excellent tutorial by Shay Howe here
The Document Object Model (DOM) is a programming interface for HTML, XML and SVG documents. It provides a structured representation of the document as a tree. The DOM defines methods that allow access to the tree, so that they can change the document structure, style and content. The DOM provides a representation of the document as a structured group of nodes and objects, possessing letious properties and methods. Nodes can also have event handlers attached to them, and once an event is triggered, the event handlers get executed. Essentially, it connects web pages to scripts or programming languages.
To access the DOM, we make use of the
Let's get started with this sample HTML. Copy and paste this into a file called
index.html and add an external script tag, or use a
<script></script> right before the
body closes. For simplicity, we'll take the latter approach right now.
The easiest way to select elements is by their
id using the
getElementById function on the
document object (
document.getElementById). This returns a SINGLE element (because ids must be unique!).
let container = document.getElementById("container");
We can also use a function called
querySelector, which selects a SINGLE element using
CSS selectors. If multiple elements match the query you pass in to
querySelector, the function will simply return the first matching element that it finds.
let container = document.querySelector("#container");
Notice that when we select by id using
querySelector, we pass in the string
querySelector always expects a CSS selector. In contrast, when we use
getElementById, we just pass in the string
container (no hashtag)! Since
getElementById expects to find an element by id, in this case the hashtag isn't necessary.
To select multiple elements, we can use
getElementsByClassName, or we can use
querySelectorAll and pass in a
CSS selector. These will return what appear to be arrays (they are not exactly arrays, but for right now, that is not a problem).
let divs = document.getElementsByTagName("div"); let divs = document.querySelectorAll("div");
Here is another example using
getElementsByClassName and the same thing with
let divsWithClassOfHello = document.getElementsByClassName("hello"); let divsWithClassOfHello = document.querySelectorAll(".hello");
As you can see, when you pass in a class name using
getElementsByClassName, you don't need to start the string with a dot. The function expects to receive a class name - it's in the name of the function! On the other hand,
querySelectorAll takes in any valid CSS query, which is why you need to pass in
.hello if you want it to find all elements with a class of "hello."
When you're ready, move on to DOM Manipulation