{ Introduction to SQL with Postgres. }

Objectives:

By the end of this chapter, you should be able to:

  • Define what a relational database and SQL are
  • Have Postgres installed on your machine
  • Use basic psql syntax to list essential information about tables and databases

Welcome to the SQL curriculum! We will be learning how to use SQL to communicate with a database and store information permanently. Let's get started by learning a few essential definitions.

Definitions

  1. Database - a collection of records that can easily be updated, accessed and managed. Databases are used to capture and analyze data on a more permanent basis.

  2. Relatonal Database - a type of database that is structured so that relationships can be established among stored information.

  3. SQL - Structured Query Language is the standardized language for communicating with and managing data in relational database. The acronym is pronounced like the word "sequel".

  4. RDBMS - A Relational DataBase Management System is a database management system based on a "relational" model. This model was actually developed before the SQL language and is the basis for SQL and systems like MySQL, Postgres, Oracle, IBM DB2, Microsoft SQL Server and many more.

  5. PostgreSQL - PostgreSQL or "postgres" is an RDBMS that is open source (free for everyone to use and contribute too!). Postgres powers some of the largest companies in the world.

  6. Schema - the organization of data inside of a database. The database schema represents the collection and association of tables in a database.

  7. Table - A series of columns and rows which store data inside of a database. An example of a table is "users" or "customers".

  8. Column - A portion of a table which has a specific category and data type. If we had a table called "users", we could create columns for "username", "password", which would both be a variable amount of characters or text. Postgres has quite a few data types, which we will see later

  9. Row / Record - Each row in a table represents a record stored. In our "users" table, we may have a row that looks like 1, "elie", "secret". Where 1 represents a unique id, "elie" represents the value of the "username" and "secret" represents the value of the "password".

  10. psql - a command line program, which can be used to enter PostgreSQL queries directly, or executed from a file.

Installing Postgres

First install PostgreSQL with homebrew.

brew install postgres

Start postgres

postgres -D /usr/local/var/postgres

Open up a new terminal tab (command + t).

Create a test database:

createdb test

(Optional) The commands below configure PostgreSQL to start automatically:

mkdir -p ~/Library/LaunchAgents
ln -sfv /usr/local/opt/postgresql/*.plist ~/Library/LaunchAgents
launchctl load -w ~/Library/LaunchAgents/homebrew.mxcl.postgresql.plist

You should be able to type in psql test and see a new shell, connecting to the test database.

To exit out of psql type in \q.

PSQL Syntax

Let's examine some useful postgres commands you will be using in psql:

  • \du - lists users
  • \dt - lists tables
  • \d+ table_name - list details about the table name
  • \l - lists databases
  • \c NAME_OF_DB - connect to a database

New databases can be created in two ways:

  1. In psql type CREATE DATABASE name_of_db;
  2. In the terminal type createdb name_of_db

Existing databases can be removed in two ways:

  1. In psql type DROP DATABASE name_of_db; - make sure you are not connected to that database or the command will not work
  2. In the terminal type drop name_of_db

Syntax Gotchas

  1. The most important thing with SQL syntax is to end your statements with a SEMI-COLON ;. SQL will not understand when you have finished your statement unless it sees that.

  2. You also MUST make sure to put all text strings in single quotes ', not double quotes. SQL views double quotes as a name of a table and single quotes as a string.

When you're ready, move on to CRUD in SQL

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